We want to deploy Microsoft Office via Remote Desktop Services (RDS). We differentiate two user groups: one which has access to Office 2016 Standard, and another which has access to Office 2016 ProPlus. May we use one Office 2016 ProPlus image for both user groups if we technically restrict the Office 2016 Standard user group only to be able to access Office Standard applications?

No, that is not possible without a greater impact on licensing. Each Office edition represents a separate product with independent licensing terms. If you are only “packaging” Office 2016 ProPlus, each installation will require a Office 2016 ProPlus license, regardless of the users having access only to certain applications of that suite.

Source: Microsoft Product Terms, August 2017