Does my Adobe Acrobat 2017 Professional license from work cover the use of the software on my home computer as well?

Yes, as long as you are the primary user of the computer at work on which the software is installed, you may also use the software on your home computer. Both computers are required to have the same platform (operating system) and the software may not be used simultaneously on both devices.

Source: EULA_Adobe Acrobat 2017_EN_as is 2017-06-28