At work I use a desktop PC as well as a laptop. Am I entitled to install AutoCAD 2017 on both devices since those are allocated to the same person?

No, Autodesk does not grant a second use right. Each device needs to be licensed separately. In your case, you would need to purchase an AutoCAD 2017 license for your desktop PC and for your notebook.

Source: Autodesk License and Service Agreement 2017